Ant Farm Survival Download
|Downloads last week:||433|
These ants are typically subdivided into the lower and higher Attines.
Studies now show that the fungi themselves may not be completely dependent on the ants.
Lower agriculture is the most primitive system and is currently practiced by 80 species in 10 genera.
The fungi used in higher agriculture cannot survive without its agriculturalists to tend it and has phenotypic changes that allow for increased ease of ant harvesting.
However considerable genetic variation in the fungi suggests that this may not be the case.
"Phylogenetic placement of an unusual coral mushroom challenges the classic hypothesis of strict coevolution in the Apterostigma pilosum group ant-fungus mutualism".
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 36: 563.
Coral-fungus agriculture is practiced by 34 species by a single derived clade within the genus Apterostigma.
Rimosus group is hypothesized to have evolved growing fungus in a yeast form between 5 and 25 million years ago.
The cultivars of higher Attines often have growths called gongylidia nutrient-rich structures designed for easy harvesting, ingesting, and feeding to larvae, while simultaneously serving as propagules for the fungi (Mueller.
They fall roughly into three major groups, only G1 having.
While the vertical transmission of fungal and strong host-symbiont specificity might suggest a tight relationship, recent analyses suggest this is not the case.
The Attini form twelve genera with overspecies, which for the most part cultivate Leucocoprineae fungi of the tribe Lepiotaceae (Weber; Chapela et al.
There are five main types of agriculture that fungus growing ants practice: lower, coral-fungus, yeast, generalized higher, and leafcutter agricultural systems.
The coral fungus farmers underwent a switch of cultivars between 10 and 20 million years ago to a nonleucocoprineacoeous fungus, which makes its choice of cultivar different from all other.
A with fungi is also noted in some species of in.